The peafowl is a species of bird that exhibits dramatic sexual dimorphism at least in its feathers. The male (aka peacock) is brightly colored (iridescent blue, or green and gold, depending on species) and has a large tail that it can fan out to display large eye-like coloration patterns. The female (aka peahen) is generally less colorful, being brown or grey in some species.
Nobility in the middle ages wanting to show off for dinner guests would sometimes serve roast peacock with the tail feathers preserved (or more likely removed and then replaced after cooking, I imagine, but I'm no expert), although by all accounts the resulting meal would have looked better than it tasted1.
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